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The faculty of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering has finalized PhD curriculum in Agricultural Mechanization Engineering. This program is going to be supported by ASMC project which is financed by American Universities. Hence, for 2017/2018 academic year, interested and qualified university staffs are invited to apply. The first chance will be given to our University staffs only. 
Application Requirements:
•    Must have M.Sc. degree in agricultural mechanization engineering /mechanical engineering /agricultural engineering or any other equivalent recognized qualification provided she/he has taken the mechanical engineering core courses during the M.Sc. study;
•    Applicants with MSc. in related field but who didn’t took the Mechanical engineering core courses may be granted provisional admission and will be required to take bridging courses as recommended by the Faculty.
Required Documents for application
•    Copies of transcripts of the previous degree
•    Two letters of recommendation
•    concept note/synopsis on possible area of PhD
                                              Application Period :- from September 01-13/2017.

1

AbuneAyana

Designing a Hierarchical Implementation Schema of Quality Management System Principles in Ethiopian Plastic Industries

Advisor, Dr. EphremGidey

2

AregaweYemane

Optimal Layout Design by Line Balancing Using Simulation Modeling

Advisor, Mr. SerajulHaque

3

HabtamMisganaw

Application of Work Study for Assembly Line Balancing

Advisor, Dr. SisayGeremew

4

Star Abreham

Productivity Improvement Using Dynamic Value stream Mapping (Case Study on Mesfin Industrial Engineering)

Advisor, Dr. SisayGeremew

1.      The class end for 2nd year and above (both regular and extension programs, UG and PG) will beJanuary 13/2009 E.C.(January 21/2016)
2.      The class end for 1st year (both regular and extension programs, UG and PG) will be January 20/2009 E.C. (January 28/2016)
3.      The final exam period for 2nd year and above students will be  between 15/05/2009 and 27/05/2009 E.C (23/01/2016-04/02/2016)
4.      The final exam period for 1st year and above students will be  between 22/05/2009 and 03/06/2009 E.C (30/01/2016-10/02/2016)
5.      4th year Mechanical Engineering students should clear from the campus till January 30/2009 E.C (07/02/2016) for Internship.
6.      4th year Automotive and Industrial Engineering students will report to the faculty on February01&02/2009 E.C. (08&09/02/2016)
ü  Internship report defense will be held on February 06 & 07/2009 E.C.(13&14/02/2016)
ü  The grade for the students should be submitted until February 09/2009 E.C.(16/02/2016)
7.     The semester break period for 2nd year and above regular and extension students will be from January28/2009 E.C to February 07/2009 E.C.(05/02/2016-14/02/2016)
8.      The semester break period for 1st year regular and extension students will be from February 04/2009 E.C to February 13/2009 E.C.(11/02/2016-20/02/2016)
9.      The registration period for the second semester for 2nd year and above regular and extension students will be on February 08&09/2009 E.C.(15&16/02/2016)
10.  The registration period for the second semester for 1st year students and 4th year Automotive and Industrial Engineering students will be decided soon.

The class end date for this semester is as follows
         1. The class end for this semester is on 14/05/09 E.C for all UG & PG(Both Regular and Extension) Students
         2. The final exam Period is from 16/05/09 to 24/05/09 for all UG & PG(Both Regular and Extension) Students
         So please try to adjust your pace according to the schedule. 

Monday 17/10/2016 will be Day one Class One For FMIE

 Source:-  http://www.scimagojr.com/countryrank.php

Rank Country Documents Citable documents Citations Self-citations Citations per document H index
1 United States 9360233 8456050 202750565 94596521 21.66 1783
2 China 4076414 4017123 24175067 13297607 5.93 563
3 United Kingdom 2624530 2272675 50790508 11763338 19.35 1099
4 Germany 2365108 2207765 40951616 10294248 17.31 961
5 Japan 2212636 2133326 30436114 8352578 13.76 797
6 France 1684479 1582197 28329815 6194966 16.82 878
7 Canada 1339471 1227622 25677205 4699514 19.17 862
8 Italy 1318466 1217804 20893655 4825002 15.85 766
9 India 1140717 1072927 8458373 2906102 7.41 426
10 Spain 1045796 966710 14811902 3510196 14.16 648
11 Australia 995114 894315 16321650 3464749 16.4 709
12 South Korea 824839 801077 8482515 1801111 10.28 476
13 Russian Federation 770491 755186 4907109 1474887 6.37 421
14 Netherlands 746289 682627 16594528 2639487 22.24 752
15 Brazil 669280 639527 5998898 2007696 8.96 412
16 Switzerland 541846 501917 12592003 1652258 23.24 744
17 Taiwan 532534 516171 5622744 1208385 10.56 363
18 Sweden 503889 471036 10832336 1631188 21.5 666
19 Poland 475693 460979 4083631 1044070 8.58 401
20 Turkey 434806 407064 3509424 854126 8.07 296
21 Belgium 407993 378807 7801077 1076566 19.12 593
22 Iran 333474 323299 1954324 729365 5.86 199
23 Israel 295747 274748 5826878 775709 19.7 536
24 Austria 295668 273467 5052810 663061 17.09 487
25 Denmark 290994 269364 6405076 891841 22.01 558
26 Finland 257159 242853 4940153 749075 19.21 479
27 Greece 246202 226914 3186313 504455 12.94 354
28 Czech Republic 237910 230048 2204922 507502 9.27 322
29 Mexico 232828 221611 2305554 469296 9.9 316
30 Norway 229276 209259 3951661 606499 17.24 439
31 Hong Kong 219177 206011 3494244 445101 15.94 392
32 Singapore 215553 202089 3135524 389066 14.55 392
33 Portugal 214838 201562 2544577 483861 11.84 334
34 South Africa 188104 172424 2125927 454537 11.3 320
35 Malaysia 181251 175146 888277 239643 4.9 190
36 New Zealand 180340 162720 2940051 436745 16.3 387
37 Argentina 159172 150927 1965624 405797 12.35 300
38 Ireland 150552 135523 2382077 269113 15.82 364
39 Hungary 147901 140910 1914820 298090 12.95 329
40 Ukraine 145332 142812 732429 198882 5.04 188
41 Romania 141731 138041 752219 181584 5.31 187
42 Egypt 137350 133147 1009954 198941 7.35 184
43 Thailand 123410 117565 1182686 190912 9.58 236
44 Saudi Arabia 111117 106187 748069 122715 6.73 195
45 Chile 101841 97250 1203308 226651 11.82 257
46 Pakistan 94285 90034 546210 146901 5.79 166
47 Slovakia 80765 78484 653526 129689 8.09 195
48 Croatia 79154 76097 548687 110824 6.93 194
49 Slovenia 71408 68494 725498 131629 10.16 204
50 Colombia 60402 57407 468135 69810 7.75 186
51 Bulgaria 59384 57590 523844 80800 8.82 184
52 Nigeria 59372 56630 334059 72718 5.63 131
53 Tunisia 58769 55904 342429 73636 5.83 123
54 Serbia 53116 50436 258732 61742 4.87 118
55 Algeria 42456 41544 215922 43297 5.09 106
56 Morocco 40737 38371 279731 51031 6.87 129
57 Indonesia 39719 37729 282788 33087 7.12 155
58 Lithuania 36136 35205 271666 59564 7.52 144
59 Venezuela 33780 32445 321006 40277 9.5 166
60 Cuba 31690 30382 202503 38512 6.39 127
61 United Arab Emirates 31366 29259 210873 21957 6.72 130
62 Belarus 30944 30439 202088 36363 6.53 133
63 Bangladesh 30612 29157 227447 42157 7.43 134
64 Viet Nam 29238 27989 253661 37049 8.68 142
65 Estonia 28660 27323 381206 64171 13.3 185
66 Jordan 28234 27369 201400 24913 7.13 112
67 Kenya 24458 22347 379560 57594 15.52 179
68 Lebanon 20815 19040 186558 18136 8.96 138
69 Philippines 20326 18658 265737 27209 13.07 163
70 Kuwait 18468 17687 157888 18112 8.55 108
71 Cyprus 17072 15552 172117 20409 10.08 127
72 Latvia 16350 15851 119627 17472 7.32 112
73 Iceland 15625 14353 357678 32840 22.89 218
74 Peru 14434 13201 192443 20509 13.33 154
75 Puerto Rico 13841 13293 248888 15917 17.98 166
76 Uruguay 13702 12971 186793 25028 13.63 132
77 Qatar 13438 12524 71382 8900 5.31 86
78 Ethiopia 13363 12625 118656 24840 8.88 101
79 Armenia 12852 12496 130584 22528 10.16 135
80 Oman 12846 11919 87333 10379 6.8 91
81 Luxembourg 12562 11567 120570 12410 9.6 114
82 Sri Lanka 12557 11532 121696 11140 9.69 120
83 Kazakhstan 12124 11809 39700 6662 3.27 68
84 Tanzania 11964 11140 170144 25866 14.22 122
85 Iraq 11605 11042 39145 5022 3.37 59
86 Ghana 11543 10578 111205 13874 9.63 105
87 Uganda 11528 10599 171367 26995 14.87 128
88 Georgia 11196 10305 105036 13619 9.38 114
89 Cameroon 11128 10513 108649 21111 9.76 94
90 Azerbaijan 9848 9620 40070 7735 4.07 64
91 Uzbekistan 9259 8997 46900 8545 5.07 68
92 Costa Rica 9177 8612 148475 14940 16.18 137
93 Nepal 9133 8196 85174 10354 9.33 94
94 Macedonia 8522 8167 54409 6198 6.38 81
95 Ecuador 7942 7440 96119 11416 12.1 111
96 Zimbabwe 7243 6691 94533 9757 13.05 99
97 Senegal 7220 6752 75373 9377 10.44 95
98 Bosnia and Herzegovina 7054 6752 30300 3892 4.3 61
99 Sudan 6099 5792 50784 5797 8.33 70
100 Moldova 5948 5828 46522 8218 7.82 80
101 Syrian Arab Republic 5744 5459 53601 5900 9.33 81
102 Macao 5157 4903 25298 3144 4.91 57
103 Panama 5129 4830 137585 13042 26.82 142
104 Botswana 5107 4545 52195 5234 10.22 79
105 Trinidad and Tobago 5037 4561 44146 3357 8.76 76
106 Malawi 4952 4520 77829 9975 15.72 104
107 Côte d’Ivoire 4842 4621 52446 5510 10.83 89
108 Burkina Faso 4814 4606 57772 8671 12 82
109 Jamaica 4750 4220 48226 4957 10.15 75
110 Bahrain 4657 4225 24769 2346 5.32 55
111 Palestine 4506 4224 30338 3884 6.73 60
112 Malta 4500 3980 40668 3167 9.04 83
113 Libya 4160 4020 18971 1158 4.56 51
114 Zambia 3992 3623 56481 6207 14.15 92
115 Benin 3851 3681 35470 6223 9.21 65
116 Bolivia 3569 3387 61076 4927 17.11 88
117 Mongolia 3319 3164 33119 3522 9.98 72
118 Congo 3304 3069 34559 3348 10.46 72
119 Madagascar 3207 3059 39217 5950 12.23 74
120 Albania 3172 3028 14759 1396 4.65 48
121 Yemen 2776 2698 18951 2154 6.83 50
122 Cambodia 2558 2292 34654 3886 13.55 72
123 Mali 2490 2353 36254 3647 14.56 75
124 Brunei Darussalam 2440 2136 16224 1601 6.65 52
125 Fiji 2400 2188 22836 2107 9.52 56
126 North Korea 2384 2329 38622 235 16.2 80
127 Mozambique 2382 2193 37433 3285 15.71 73
128 Namibia 2303 2125 28985 2673 12.59 72
129 Guatemala 2281 2085 29034 1873 12.73 69
130 Papua New Guinea 2258 2133 31119 3229 13.78 71
131 Montenegro 2232 2153 7346 1486 3.29 32
132 Mauritius 2206 2035 17629 1534 7.99 54
133 New Caledonia 2122 2041 34753 4479 16.38 73
134 Gabon 2048 1936 34704 3737 16.95 80
135 Gambia 2004 1859 54925 4683 27.41 99
136 Laos 1802 1670 20028 2677 11.11 59
137 Rwanda 1759 1554 15356 1456 8.73 54
138 Barbados 1690 1416 20879 1171 12.35 64
139 Niger 1623 1553 19835 1782 12.22 59
140 Monaco 1586 1449 29705 3225 18.73 76
141 Myanmar 1543 1458 13764 1034 8.92 51
142 Kyrgyzstan 1486 1402 9918 1056 6.67 45
143 Togo 1470 1367 8850 841 6.02 39
144 Paraguay 1454 1373 17717 1029 12.19 60
145 Guadeloupe 1435 1345 17075 1307 11.9 52
146 Nicaragua 1301 1233 18269 1293 14.04 62
147 French Polynesia 1272 1207 19523 2077 15.35 58
148 Liechtenstein 1272 1172 14339 1166 11.27 55
149 Tajikistan 1244 1209 4728 714 3.8 29
150 El Salvador 1149 1061 9994 519 8.7 44
151 Dominican Republic 1101 1029 12965 657 11.78 51
152 Swaziland 1091 988 9618 450 8.82 43
153 Honduras 995 950 13157 619 13.22 51
154 Greenland 977 941 14484 2024 14.82 48
155 Grenada 965 824 6286 300 6.51 33
156 French Guiana 956 898 15573 1068 16.29 56
157 Afghanistan 791 674 5800 534 7.33 36
158 Guam 788 727 12222 541 15.51 55
159 Haïti 765 683 12231 992 15.99 49
160 Angola 715 680 5422 411 7.58 35
161 Martinique 653 598 10737 227 16.44 39
162 Bermuda 633 590 21884 1579 34.57 73
163 Guinea 597 552 8320 346 13.94 46
164 Sierra Leone 590 529 5551 462 9.41 31
165 Reunion 581 544 6605 143 11.37 38
166 Bhutan 551 499 3249 371 5.9 27
167 Central African Republic 538 500 6940 367 12.9 41
168 Guyana 530 485 4898 169 9.24 32
169 Democratic Republic Congo 517 481 7641 200 14.78 43
170 Faroe Islands 510 472 10105 771 19.81 48
171 Eritrea 488 468 5260 421 10.78 35
172 Seychelles 482 453 8579 657 17.8 44
173 Mauritania 482 456 4762 300 9.88 32
174 Lesotho 459 425 3524 180 7.68 28
175 Guinea-Bissau 458 421 9357 1791 20.43 50
176 Netherlands Antilles 435 397 7662 214 17.61 44
177 Burundi 421 392 3761 191 8.93 32
178 Bahamas 399 365 4535 366 11.37 36
179 Chad 382 363 5122 382 13.41 33
180 Falkland Islands (Malvinas) 358 341 4628 718 12.93 34
181 Saint Kitts and Nevis 350 240 1866 78 5.33 21
182 Belize 330 299 4734 207 14.35 38
183 Solomon Islands 324 296 4125 301 12.73 33
184 Vanuatu 317 295 3142 350 9.91 27
185 Turkmenistan 296 286 2291 297 7.74 20
186 Suriname 293 276 2921 201 9.97 30
187 Dominica 266 234 2007 145 7.55 23
188 Liberia 263 216 1934 136 7.35 21
189 Samoa 249 231 2734 151 10.98 27
190 Cayman Islands 231 210 1857 68 8.04 23
191 Virgin Islands (U.S.) 215 204 3173 72 14.76 31
192 Maldives 206 194 1833 99 8.9 21
193 Cape Verde 199 194 1501 128 7.54 17
194 San Marino 191 181 2365 63 12.38 23
195 Djibouti 190 178 1206 94 6.35 18
196 Federated States of Micronesia 188 175 2144 138 11.4 24
197 Andorra 172 151 1786 59 10.38 21
198 American Samoa 162 150 2127 97 13.13 22
199 Equatorial Guinea 153 147 1587 168 10.37 20
200 Palau 149 143 2238 134 15.02 26
201 Timor-Leste 125 102 628 48 5.02 13
202 Virgin Islands (British) 121 111 2047 52 16.92 20
203 Somalia 115 97 685 33 5.96 15
204 Antigua and Barbuda 114 103 550 22 4.82 13
205 Tonga 108 105 1408 62 13.04 21
206 Gibraltar 106 94 1451 137 13.69 19
207 Saint Lucia 99 85 1774 10 17.92 17
208 Comoros 96 89 839 52 8.74 13
209 Montserrat 95 93 2282 236 24.02 27
210 Aruba 93 74 621 7 6.68 12
211 Marshall Islands 84 77 827 30 9.85 16
212 Mayotte 74 72 416 20 5.62 10
213 Northern Mariana Islands 68 66 680 37 10 14
214 Cook Islands 64 61 658 56 10.28 14
215 Sao Tome and Principe 47 45 695 60 14.79 15
216 Turks and Caicos Islands 45 45 475 19 10.56 13
217 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 40 38 518 3 12.95 11
218 Anguilla 36 33 201 7 5.58 7
219 Kiribati 33 28 184 2 5.58 8
220 United States Minor Outlying Islands 30 29 710 0 23.67 11
221 Tuvalu 25 24 284 4 11.36 8
222 Vatican City State 25 16 121 5 4.84 6
223 Nauru 22 21 118 4 5.36 6
224 Norfolk Island 20 20 114 0 5.7 7
225 Svalbard and Jan Mayen 20 18 283 3 14.15 8
226 British Indian Ocean Territory 19 16 267 0 14.05 7
227 Niue 16 13 25 0 1.56 2
228 Wallis and Futuna 15 13 60 4 4 4
229 Saint Helena 15 15 69 0 4.6 5
230 Cocos (Keeling) Islands 14 14 162 0 11.57 4
231 Western Sahara 11 9 22 0 2 3
232 Christmas Island 7 7 38 0 5.43 4
233 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 7 5 42 0 6 2
234 Bouvet Island 6 4 29 0 4.83 2
235 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 5 4 6 0 1.2 1
236 French Southern Territories 5 5 97 0 19.4 5
237 Pitcairn 3 1 4 0 1.33 1
238 Tokelau 2 1 43 0 21.5 1
239 Heard Island and McDonald Islands 1 1 3 0 3 1

Potential, possible, or probable predatory scholarly open-access journals

This is a list of questionable, scholarly open-access journals. We recommend that scholars read the available reviews, assessments and descriptions provided here, and then decide for themselves whether they want to submit articles, serve as editors or on editorial boards.  The criteria for determining predatory journals are here.

We hope that tenure and promotion committees can also decide for themselves how importantly or not to rate articles published in these journals in the context of their own institutional standards and/or geo-cultural locus.  We emphasize that journals change in their business and editorial practices over time. This list is kept up-to-date to the best extent possible but may not reflect sudden, unreported, or unknown enhancements. This list is last updated on October 20, 2014.

 

When information needs to be communicated, Edward Tufte demands both truth and beauty.

Photo: Mark Ostow

 

View photo album >>

By Fran Smith

In 1613, Galileo published Istoria e dimostrazioni intorno alle macchie solari, his remarkable observations of the sun. On a fall day, 393 years later, Edward Tufte stands in front of a packed hotel ballroom, holding up a first edition of that book.

The room could be in New York, San Francisco, Cleveland or any of the dozens of other cities where Tufte, ’63, MS ’64, teaches his daylong course Presenting Data and Information. Today he’s at the New Haven Omni, just blocks from the Yale campus where he taught for 22 years. Nearly 400 people have come, at $360 a head (half-price for students, and a set of his books is included), to hear the man who has been called the Leonardo da Vinci of data, the Strunk and White of graphic design, the George Orwell of the digital age.

If the course title sounds like a snooze, you might be surprised that an academic who lectures about data could attain such godhead status. But in four books on design, from 1983’s The Visual Display of Quantitative Information to the recentBeautiful Evidence, Tufte has offered the country’s foremost critique of the way information is depicted in graphs, tables, illustrations and (lately and relentlessly) PowerPoint slides. Graphics, as Tufte makes clear, are not mere sideshows to spruce up text, entertain readers or keep art majors employed. Graphics shape, and too often distort, our understanding of everything.

Tufte has demonstrated how confusing medical charts can lead to mistakes in treatment and how corporate reports that highlight years of rising revenue without adjusting for inflation can mislead investors. He has shown how a lawyer used a simple spreadsheet to defend mobster John Gotti and how 19th-century physician John Snow used detailed maps of London to pinpoint the cause of a cholera outbreak. Tufte is credited with turning chart-making into a discipline with intellectual credibility and moral weight. His course attracts not only visual professionals but also scientists, engineers, journalists, doctors, attorneys and financial analysts—pretty much anyone who analyzes and presents data.

In his lectures and books, Tufte invokes a variety of thinkers who have been models of precision, withering analysis and clarity. But his hero, “the master,’’ is Galileo, the mathematician and astronomer who challenged fiercely held misconceptions about the world by the simple, unprecedented act of looking at the sky through a telescope and drawing what he saw.

Beautiful Evidence opens with the words of a Galileo friend and patron, who wrote that those drawings “delight by the wonder of the spectacle and the accuracy of expression.’’ Tufte returns to the images again and again: sunspots, Jupiter’s moons, meticulously annotated diagrams of planets and stars. He says Galileo’s first published observations of Saturn’s rings, with word-sized sketches inserted mid-sentence (see below), “may be the best piece of analytic design ever done.’’

A white-gloved young man carries the book up and down the long rows of conference tables so all can get a close-up glimpse at this historical treasure, where Galileo stated the heretical idea that the Earth moves. And sure enough, every visual attribute Tufte promotes is on those old, mesmerizing pages: the integration of drawings and words; the efficient, elegant design; the straightforward image, almost as elemental as a child’s, capturing the soul-stirring richness of the universe.

But what inspires Tufte is more than aesthetics. Galileo’s observations, recorded in nearly 12,000 pages, marked an intellectual revolution. No longer was knowledge the dictate of church authorities, kings or the acolytes of Aristotle. Theories could be tested—doctrine could be upended—by what the eye can see. As Tufte sees it, what makes evidence beautiful isn’t artistry. “It’s all about discovering and telling the truth,’’ he says.

After an encounter with Tufte’s ideas, people can never again look at a chart, a map, a scientific table or a PowerPoint presentation quite the same way. In his romps through statistics, art, history, science, policy and anything else that grabs his interest, Tufte tackles a fundamental problem: how to accurately render complex, interrelated information on a two-dimensional paper surface or computer screen—how to, as he puts it, “escape flatland.’’ Tufte explains how to do it well and demonstrates the many, many ways it’s done badly.

Bad graphics mangle the truth or lie outright, Tufte says, by a myriad of design flaws. Lousy graphics omit context, bury critical information, cherry-pick data to advance a cause and heap on “chartjunk’’—a Tufteism (and there are many) for the smiley faces, irrelevant numbers and other doodads that distract us from grasping evidence, thinking about it and drawing smart conclusions. This can have catastrophic consequences. Tufte asserts, for example, that poorly designed charts played a decisive role in both space shuttle disasters (see sidebar).

By his count, 1.4 million copies of his books are in print, and 160,000 people have taken his one-day course. He is cited copiously in scholarly articles, design textbooks and general-interest books with Dilbert-worthy titles like Why Business People Speak Like Idiots. He has consulted with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, NASA, the Federal Energy Administration, IBM, Bose, Sun Microsystems, TV networks, leading newspapers, law firms, brokerage houses and hospitals. Devotees use his name, like Google’s, as a verb; to “Tufteize” your presentations is to scrap content-lite graphics, such as pie charts and decorative dingbats, and to create visuals that brim with data and state precisely what you know—nothing more and nothing less.

“We adore him,’’ says Nicolas Bissantz, managing director of Bissantz & Company, a software firm in Nuremberg, Germany. Bissantz stumbled onto Tufte’s books (in English—they’ve not been published in translation), and got so excited he developed software that makes Tufteizing a chart almost as easy as, well, creating a PowerPoint show. The software uses a Tufte idea for compressing huge amounts of data—say, the fluctuations of the exchange rate over several years—into a word-sized graphic called a sparkline.

Tufte posted sparklines on the Ask E.T. Forum of his website, free for the taking. He puts many ideas there and, although he prefers that people write open-source code, he doesn’t stop anyone from turning an idea into a commercial product. Tufte also posts draft chapters, photos of his art, graphics he loves or hates, and questions that intrigue him: Are bad PowerPoint displays the fault of presenters or the technology itself? What makes for a brilliant performer-audience relationship? Is concert music always too loud? What are the grand truths about human behavior?

Tufte calls the forum “open office hours’’ and the adherents who weigh in “Kindly Contributors.’’ Here he seeks comment on problems he’s working on. Last spring, after an airline security official asked him to analyze whether better airport runway maps would reduce runway incursions, Tufte posed the problem on his website; the discussion was still going in November.

Tufte dispenses advice and criticism unsparingly. “Sometimes the contributors are disappointed,’’ Bissantz says. “They’ll post an idea and he has three or four points of criticism, and they’re devastated. They want to defend their concept, but it’s ridiculous—he just demolishes the idea. It’s worthwhile to just sit back and say, ‘Thank you, Master.’ ’’

At 65, Tufte is not only a guru and a verb but also a cottage industry. He publishes, distributes and markets his books through his firm Graphics Press, run from a converted garage. (For more than 20 years, the press stubbornly had a single author: Edward Rolf Tufte. Last year, he added his mother, Virginia, publishing her book Artful Sentences: Syntax as Style.) Tufte also makes sculpture—huge abstract pieces, often made from steel, installed on 23 acres in Cheshire, Conn., where he lives, and a 122-acre spread, Hogpen Hill, that he recently bought in nearby Woodbury.

He was a professor of political science, statistics and computer science at Yale and senior critic in the School of Art when he retired in 1999, weary of what he calls the “bureaucratic bloat” of academia. He also stopped consulting, frustrated because managers forced to listen to his suggestions rarely followed them. (He once told an interviewer that products under development “are in one of two states—either too early to tell or too late to change.’’) He works on the occasional industry problem, like runway maps, pro bono. Running his own enterprise, Tufte says, allows him to work “elegantly, intensely, gracefully and incredibly efficiently.”

He was born in Kansas City in 1942, and graduated high school in Beverly Hills, Calif. “Until I got there I thought I was one of the smartest people around,’’ he recalls. “Then we moved and suddenly 20 people around me were smarter than I was.’’ His father was an engineer and public works director; his mother, a reporter, went to graduate school when Edward left for Stanford and later became an English professor at USC. “We had numbers and words in the same house,’’ Tufte says, as if that explains how he got to where he is.

Maybe it does. His career is built on the way he joined words and numbers under one intellectual roof, marrying quantitative reasoning with communication as nobody else. In an interview in the mid-’90s with the Computer Literacy Bookshops in San Jose, Tufte explained that to do statistical design, one has to be able to see and to count. He claimed he didn’t see as well as many graphic artists and didn’t count as well as the best statisticians, but he did the combo better than just about anyone. His great insight was to think about graphics not as art or statistical constructs but as stories. He challenged chart-makers to ask the question: what is the story we’re trying to tell?

Tufte majored in statistics at Stanford. He didn’t much like the “frat-boy rowdiness” of the campus. But three professors influenced him deeply—the late statistician Lincoln Moses and political scientists Richard Brody and Raymond Wolfinger, now at Berkeley—and he stayed in close touch with them.

Tufte “was always trying to devise user-friendly approaches to statistics that nonspecialists like me could use,’’ Brody recalls. Ray and Barbara Wolfinger remember that young Tufte was like a grad student in his seriousness, curiosity and enthusiasm for faculty dinners. “Most undergraduates had no interest in us at all,’’ Barbara Wolfinger says. “Most were only interested in mating. Ed was different. There are very few truly unusual people one meets in life. Ed was certainly one of them.’’

Tufte says his mentors showed him “how successful scholars lived,’’ and he loved it. “I wanted to get done with school as quickly as possible and become a professor. I realized the academic world is a more humane and ethical place with better values than most of the world. . . . It’s also much more tolerant of idiosyncrasy and independence. I’ve always been contemptuous of authority. There aren’t better places than the university to do that and get away with it.’’

He finished his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in four years and got his PhD in political science from Yale four years later. He started painting the day he completed his dissertation—balloons rising to the sky, “unintentional but heavy symbolism,’’ he says. He spent the next 10 years on the public affairs faculty at Princeton. He wrote two well-received books on democracy and political control and co-authored another, on politics, with his Yale adviser, political scientist Robert Dahl.

In the mid-1970s, Tufte was asked to teach a statistics course to visiting journalists. He found the literature in the field thin, “grimly devoted to explaining the use of the ruling pen,’’ with nothing to say about quantitative reasoning. He started doing research, and the noted Princeton statistician John Tukey suggested they give a series of joint seminars. Terrified about performing in front of Tukey, Tufte threw himself into preparing for each class. Soon, he began weaving his notes into a manuscript.

He finished the book in 1982, after moving to Yale. No publisher would print it to his exacting standards. Tufte wanted the book to exemplify the design principles he articulated. It had to have lavish, abundant, high-resolution images and footnotes alongside the text so a reader wouldn’t have to flip pages to find a reference. The book had to be printed on thick, creamy paper and sell for a reasonable price, about $30. “Publishers seemed appalled at the prospect that an author might govern design,’’ he later wrote. So he took out a second mortgage at nearly 18 percent interest and produced the book himself.

The Visual Display of Quantitative Information was instantly hailed as a classic. Orders poured in. He repaid the loan within six months. Envisioning Informationfollowed in 1990 and Visual Explanations in 1997. Tufte likes to point out that Galileo, too, helped finance the publication of his own books.

I don’t want to sound too majestic, but my books are forever knowledge,’’ Tufte says. “People will be reading them a long time from now.”

On a late spring morning, Tufte sits on a couch in his Cheshire home, in a room cluttered with books, papers, magazines, art. One of his sculptures dangles from the ceiling, a large bird made from corrugated aluminum folded like origami. He wears shorts and a T-shirt, slumps into the cushions and flips through Beautiful Evidence, page by page. Nine years in the making, the book arrived from the bindery the day before.

Like the earlier books, Beautiful Evidence isn’t an instruction guide but a statement of Tufte’s design principles: Show comparisons. Show causality. Show data in their full complexity. Document and display your sources. Above all, respect the intelligence of your audience and tell the truth. “Serious presentations,’’ Tufte often says, “rise and fall on the quality, relevance and integrity of the content.’’

By “forever knowledge” Tufte means his principles “are indifferent’’ to culture, gender, nationality or history. They apply to a 6,000-year-old cave etching, to the latest web design, to every map, chart and graph in between. The images inBeautiful Evidence “come from 14 centuries, 15 countries . . . three planets and the innumerable stars’’ to underscore the point that his principles are universal, apparently as immutable as the laws of nature.

Some critics—and even some fans—don’t buy it. “Tufte, you’re a smart guy, with good points to make,’’ one blogger moans. “Why puff it up with this foolishness about universality?” Questions of timelessness aside, the power and the pleasure of his books lie in their unabashed reach. Each offers a stunning array of images, from the brilliant to the ludicrous to the heartbreaking. A favorite image—one now almost synonymous with Tufte’s name—is a once-obscure 1869 statistical map of Napoleon’s march on Russia, by the French engineer Charles Joseph Minard. Tracing the number of soldiers across the land, through months and dropping temperatures, the map shows the French army was devastated not by the enemy but, in retreat, by the cold. “This is War and Peace, as told by a visual Tolstoy,’’ Tufte says.

But it’s not a single image that makes Tufte’s work memorable; it’s the mix and multitude. “Escaping Flatland,’’ the opening chapter of Envisioning Information, has 40 graphics in almost as many pages—a fairly typical count. The images skip seamlessly from Galileo’s sunspots to a 1937 timetable for a Java railroad to air pollution charts to notations of dance movements. One spreadsheet shows the crimes committed by government informants who testified against accused Mafia boss John Gotti; the ledger of murder, drug sales and pistol-whipping helped persuade a jury to dismiss the testimony as that of sleazy stool pigeons and acquit Gotti. Is there any stronger proof that graphics isn’t just for designers? And that presenting data isn’t necessarily dull?

Tufte says he was drawn to the field precisely because it is so wide-ranging. Still, it’s hard to imagine another scholar approaching charts and illustrations with such mirth, passion and oddball appetites. Tufte once attended a Russian satellite auction and bought a visual diary made by cosmonauts during their three-month space voyage. When he worked on redesigning medical records, he donned a white coat and hung out in a hospital. In Visual Explanations, he co-authored a chapter on magic with a professional magician, Jamy Ian Swiss. It is vintage Tufte—an exuberant illustrated analysis of card tricks, vanishing coins, flying water glasses unmasked. “To create illusions is to engage in disinformation design, to corrupt optical information, to deceive the audience,’’ the authors write. “Thus the strategies of magic suggest what not to do if our goal is truth-telling rather than illusion-making.’’

Nine years ago, around the time he began work on Beautiful Evidence, Tufte set aside painting and started sculpting. Large abstract pieces now rise from the landscape in Cheshire and Hogpen Hill. Spring Arcs, a series of solid stainless steel arcs that seem to squash and stretch depending on your vantage point, span 12 by 67 feet. The Millstone pieces are curved rust-colored giants, 11,000 pounds of scrap from the nuclear power plant from which they take their name. Dear Leader, installed in the winter but deemed finished only in May when grass was planted around it, is two giant porcelain and steel cylindrical shapes, Tufte’s vision of missiles fired from North Korea that plonk down in a Connecticut field. Here and there graceful aluminum birds seem to lift to the sky, like the balloons he painted so many years ago.

Tufte has exhibited his sculpture at shows in Los Angeles and New York and discovered two things. “I learned that the art needs to be outdoors, and that I don’t like hearing what people say about it.’’ Still, the man who has made a career of visual display cannot resist displaying the visuals closest to his heart.Beautiful Evidence closes with the sculptor’s photo album: seven two-page spreads showing Tufte’s work, photographed in various seasons.

Some longtime Tufte fans have responded with impatience. “Beautiful—but not on topic without stretching the imagination,’’ Stephen Few, a consultant who specializes in data visualization, writes on the online Business Intelligence Network. Zach Gemignani, a founder of Juice Analytics, a data-consulting firm, says, “I wish that Tufte would focus more on the current state of information visualization in business today and encourage vendors to make better tools.’’

But making better tools has never been Tufte’s mission. His passion is fundamentals—the accuracy of expression and the wonder of the spectacle. And these sculptures, sitting on the grass or floating free in space, are wonderful spectacles. Changing with the shadows and the seasons, they grab a blade of grass, a buttercup, a mound of snow and reflect it back, transforming the familiar into an image to behold. Escapes from flatland, every one.

Adopted form, 

https://alumni.stanford.edu/get/page/magazine/article/?article_id=32152

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